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f HE SPECTATOR.
mOM LIKIIO AND OTHSOB.
It will bo shown hereafter, that all plants
and vegetable structures, undergo two pro
cesses of docoriipositlon after death ; ono of
these In named fermentation tho othor, pu
trefaction or decay.
It will nlso Imi shown, that decay in a slow
process of combustion a process, therefore,
in which tho combustible part of a plant
unito with the oxygen of tho atmosphere.
The decay of woody fibre (tho principal
constituent of all plant) is accompanied by
a phenomenon of u peculiar kind. Thin nub.
utarice, in contact with air or oxygen, con.
vortH the latter into an equal volume of car
bonic acid, ami its decay ccascu upon tho din
appearance of the oxygen. If the carbonic
ucid is removed, and oxygen replaced, its
ifecay recommences, that in, it again con
verts oxygen into carbonic acid. Woody fi.
lire constats of carbon and the elements of '
ter; and if w judge only from the products
formed during its decomposition, und from
those formed by pure charcoal, burned at a
high ternpernture, wc might conclude that the
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tho organs by which it obtains food from the
atmosphere aro formed, the carbonic acid of
the soil is no further required.
Deficiency of moisture in the soil, or its
complete dryness, doea not now check tho
growth of a plant, provided it receives from
tho dew and atmosphere as much as is re
quisite for the process of assimilation. Dur
ing the heat of summer it derives iu carbon
almost exclusively from the atmosphere.
The size of a plant is proportional to the
surface of the organs which are destined to
convey food to it. The power which roots
possess of taking up nourishment does not
cease as long as nutriment is present. When
tho same in both ; the decay of he food oftt P,ant '" in greater quantity than
its organs require for their own perfect de
. iclopment, the superfluous nutriment is not
woody fibre proceeds therefore, as if no hy
ilrmroii or oxvuen entered into its comnosi
tion. A verv lona time is required for tho ' ""turned to the soil, but is employed in the
..L.. i-J. r..:. aunrM.mi...:nn ,i ' formation of nW organs
tuiiiijiuuwii " lllll llV"jr- i .wiu furuii unu i w
the presence of water is necessary For its
maintenance ; alkalies promote it, but acjds
retard" it. Woody fibre in a state of decay
is the substance called humus.' The proper
ty of woody fibre to convert surrounding oxy
i;cn into carbonic acid, diminishes as its de
cay adiunccs, and at last a brown coaly look
ing substance remains, in which this proper.
ty is entirely wanting, which is called com
mon mould: it is the product of the complete
decay of woody fibre, and constitutes tho
principal part of ull the tilrata of brown coal
Humus acts in the same manner in a soil
permeable to air, as in air itself; it is a con
tinued source of carbonic acid, which it emits
very slowly. An atmosphere of carbonic
acid, formed at tho expense of the oxygen of
the air, surrounds ccry particle of decaying
humus. The cultivation of land, by tilling
and loosening the soil, causes a free and un
obstructed access of air. An atmosphere of
carbonic acid is therefore contained in every
fertile soil, and is the first and most impor
tant food for the young plants which grow
In BDrincr. whn: lhoiu nrrrnna nf nlantu am
i o r i '--j
absent, which nature ha? appointed for the
abstraction of nourishment from tho atmos
phere, the component substance of seeds is
employed in tho formation of the roots. Each
-ow radical fibril which a plant acouirei,
my be regarded as constituting at the same
time a mouth, a lung, and a stomach. The
roots perform .tho functions of the leaves from
the first moment of their formation; they ex.
tract from the soil their proper nutriment
namely, the carbonic acid generated by the
By loosening the soil which surrounds
young plants, we favor the access of air, and
the formation of carbonic acid ; and on the
other hand, tho quantity of their food is di
minished by evory difficulty which opposes
tho renewal of air. A plant itself effects this
change of air at a certain period of its growth.
The carbonic acid, which protects the unde.
.cayed humus from further ohange, is absorb
ed and taken up by the fine fibres of the
roots, this is replaced by air, by which pro
cess tho decay is renewed, and a fresh por.
tion of.oarbonic aoid formed. A plant at this
time .receives its food both by the roots and
by the organs above ground, and advances
rapidly to maturity.
When a plant is quite matured, and when
oi now organs ; at the side or a
cell already formed, another cell arises; at
the side of a twig and leaf, a new twig and
leaf arc del eloped: these new parts could
not have been formed, had there not been an
excess of nourishment.
Leaves, twigs and brunches, when com
pletely matured, as they do not become lar
ger, do not need food for their own support;
for their existence as organs, they require
only the means necessary for the perform
ance of the special functions to which they
arc destined by nature; they do not exist on
their own account ; but they serve for the
formation of woody fire, and all tho solid mat-
1 ters of similar composition ; and when the
woody substance has advanced to a certain
extent, the expenditure of the nutriment (the
supply of which still remains the same) takes
a new direction, and blossoms are produced.
Tho functions of the leaves of most plants
cease upon the ripening of their fruit, be
cause the products of their action are no
longer needed. They now yield to the che
mical influence of the oxygen of the air, gen
erally suffer a change in color, and fall off.
Willamette, May 22, 1846.
Mr. Editor You are requested to publish
the proceedings of a meeting which was held,
pursuant to notice, at Mr. D. Waldo's, for
the purpose of organizing a Military Com
On motion, Mr. Keyser was called to the
chair, and Mr. Thos. Holt appointed seore
tary of the meeting.
On motion, the following preamble was
read and adopted, to wit :
Whereas the people of Oregon territory are
situated remote from, and without the pro
tection of, any government ; wetherafore,
as members of a free and enlighteojdjoom
munity, wishing to preserve the principles
and institutions of a free and republican form
of government, and being well aware that
the body of the people is the only power ca-
pable of sustaining such institutionr, there
fore, we deem it advisable to form ourselves
into military bodies, for the purpose of pre
serving peace and order at Lome, and pre
venting aggression from abroad having this
precept before us, that
Etanul vigiiaaea is fteiaWs fries
Its 4eadry baas is wsw aai visa.
On motion, it was resolved, that we, as
citizens of said territory, in pursuance of this
duty, forthwith organize ourselves into a com
pany of Mounted Riflemen, and pledge our
selves to abide such rules, regulations, tad
by-laws, as may bo adopted by a majority ef
On motjon, resolved, that this company shall
bo called "THE OREGON RANGERS.'1
On motion) the president proceeded to read
a code of by-laws for the government of the
troop, which was adopted.
After which, about forty.five joined the
company, by subscribing their names fo the
On motion, two committees were appointee
to nominate candidates for officers of said
company. The result of the election was as
follows, to wit :
For Captain, Charles Bennet.
" 1st Lieut. A. A. Robinson.
' 2d " Isaac Hutchins.
" 3d " Hiram English.
" Ord. Sergt. Thos. Holt.
2d " Thos. Howell.
" 3d " S. C. Morris.
4th " William Herring.
" IstCorp'l.P. C. Keyser.
" 2d ' Robert Walker.
" 3d " B. Frost.
" 4th " John Rowe.
On motion, resolved, that the president
secretary sign the proceedings of this meet
ing, and forward a copy of them to the edl
tor of the Oregon Spectator for publication.
On motion, Uiemeeting adjourned.
m w trtsrnnn w a.
Thos. Holt, See's. XI
Tho PfcilaeaplBir f Xmrrtmg.
r ALfBKD CaoWQUUX.
Marriage, under any circumstances, is a
very ticklish affair.
When the contracting parties do not " hit
their horses," they frequently hit each other,
and then it is a most disagreeable affair.
When Aey do harmonize, and one is the
echo the veritable reflexion of the other's
thoughts, smiles, and feelings anticipating
every whim and desire, it is a very pleasant
When a " happy couple" display their af
fection by pats and taps, and little pinches
before company it is a very ridiculous af
fair. When the husband throws out aggravating
insinuations, and the excited spouse, liky Xaa
tippe of old, throws a tea-pot at her lord and
master's head, it is a horrible affair.
When the lady rules the roast, and wean
the inexpressible look of tyrannical com
mand, and the gentleman tacitly yields to
her usurping and unnatural sway -it is a
When the husband is not content with the
sweets of the flower he has culled, but flies
abroad, and, like the "little busy bee," goes
sipping and "gathering honey" from "every
flower it is a lamentable affair.
When the lady, forgetful of her vows of
constancy and love, " bolts" with a pair ot
black whiskers, and ditto military boots It
Is a very naughty attair. .
Takinc all these reflections into consider.
ation, it must inoontestibly appear What
marriage is a very serious affair. And, as
marriages are said to be made in heaven, w
should advise every candidate not to
knot before he obtains a duly authenticated
certificate of the original contract (
Similarity of disposition does not always
constitute a happy marriage. As in a duet,
they may accord beautiftiTly, although they
sing different notes. But here the shall
ends, or is at fault ; for the husband should
invariably take the lady's part I
Disparity of age Is not a Mosaeary bar It
domestic felicity. A man of forty may raahe
a wife of twenty extremely happy. When
Plutus presides at the nuptials instead of Cu
pid, the, "matoh" frequently proves a "lucl
ibr," and the least ftfetiot. soatttiom pre-
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